Dyneema®: HMPE fiber (High Modulus Polyethelene)
Dyneema is a high modulus polyethylene (HMPE) fibre produced according to a patented process that results in maximum breaking strength at minimum weight. On a weight for weight basis it is 15 times stronger than steel. With a high resistance to water, transpiration, odors and chemicals, Dyneema ensures a longer life to the finished product. Dyneema is considered to be the strongest fibre in the world. It is used for mooring and towing lines, ropes, slings, cables and nets, bullet resistant armor and clothing, safety gloves and garments, fishing lines, cordages (yachting, rigging, parapenting & kite lines…) and sails. Click here for more information about the properties and applications with Dyneema.
Para-and meta-aramid fiber
Aramid is the family name of meta and para-aramid fibers. Aramid is produced as a continuous filament. It is marketed under the trade names Kevlar®, Nomex® (both produced by Dupont), Twaron® and Technora® (both produced by Teijin). Aramid has excellent flame and heat resistant properties and exhibits a high breaking strength and low elongation at break. Disadvantage is that aramid has limited flex fatigue and UV resistance.
Kevlar is a para-aramid fiber produced by Dupont (since 1972). Kevlar has very good mechanical properties. Its relative tensile strength is higher than steel wire. The mechanical strength is partly formed by the hydrogen bonds between the molecules. Kevlar is widely used in the automotive industry, construction, sport, aerospace, defence and in industrial applications in applications like tires, bullet-proof vests, protective clothing, optical fiber cabels and an asbestos replacer. Click here for more information about the properties of and applications of Kevlar.
Twaron is a para-aramid fiber produced by Teijin Aramid (formerly Akzo Nobel). It is a heat-resistant synthetic fibre, developed in the 70s of the last century. Twaron, like Kevlar, is used in many high quality applications in different industrial sectors. The production takes place in Delfzijl where the base polymer is dissolved with a solvent (100% anhydrous sulfuric acid). The fibers are then formed by spinning the dissolved polymer into a solid fiber. Finally, the sulphuric acid is removed from the fiber in a so-called washing street that is hundreds of meters long. After this the fiber is clean and ready for further processing. Click here for more information about the properties and applications of Twaron.
Technora is a para-aramid fiber made of co-polymers produced by Teijin Aramid (since 1987). Technora is 10% stronger than Twaron and Kevlar, but also a bit more expensive. It has better bending properties and is more resistant to water. Click here for more information about the properties and applications of Technora.
Nomex is a meta-aramid fiber from Dupont (since 1967). It is an offshoot of the aramid family because it has a higher degree of heat resistant than para-aramid but a considerably lower strength. The big advantage is that fabrics made from Nomex comfortable to wear. Click here for more information about the properties and applications of Nomex.
Vectran®: LCP fiber (Liquid Crystaline Polymer)
Vectran is a high performance fiber with a very high breaking strength and stiffness. The big advantage is that there is no creep (stretching under constant load) in the yarn. The yarn is spun from a liquid crystalline polymer (LCP). Vectran is 5 times stronger than steel and 10 times stronger than aluminum. Vectran melts at a temperature of 330 C and is very sensitive to UV radiation. It provides solutions in aerospace, industrial protection, shipping and in medical applications, for example, Vectran is invisible in MRI systems.
Click here for more information about the properties and applications of Vectran.
Zylon®: PBO fiber (Polybenzobisoxazole)
Zylon is a synthetic fibre manufacturer by Toyobo in Japan. Zylon has an extremely high tensile strength and modulus and exhibits very little stretch and creep. In addition, the melting point is very high. Zylon is, however, sensitive to humidity and very sensitive to UV radiation. Under these influences fiber has a limited lifespan. Zylon is the most modern fiber that is used in ropes. Additionally, the fiber is used in protective covers, helmets, cut and heat resistant gloves and standing rigging for sailing boats.
Click here for more information about the properties and applications of Zylon.
Dyneema®, the world’s strongest fiber™
Kevlar®, Twaron® and Technora® combine high strength and low elongation with high temperature resistance. Besides yellow, They are also available as black yarn.
Nomex® combines high heat resistance with a high wearing comfort.
Vectran® combines a high break strength and rigidity with excellent creep resistance.
Zylon combines a very high tensile strength and modulus with no creep and a very high melting point.
Dyneema® is a registered trademark of Royal DSM N.V. Kevlar® and Nomex® are registered trademarks of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company Twaron® and Technora® are registered trademarks of Teijin Aramid B.V. Zylon® is a registered trademark of Toyobo Co., Ltd. Vectran® is a registered trademark of Kuraray Co., Ltd.